Safety Guidances (English)

General Information


Are you prepared for a disaster?

  1. Talk to your family about what to do and how to prepare for adisaster.
    Because a disaster can occur without warning at any time, you should regularly talk to your family and friends about what to do in case of a disaster so that everyone remains calm.
    Your discussion should include:
    • Contact information and a meeting place.
    • Plan to let others know you are safe.
    • How can you be contacted if your mobile phone does not work (Skype, Facebook, Twitter, etc.).
  2. Create an emergency preparedness kit.
    • Flashlights, portable radio, drinking water, valuables, medications, money, cash card, ID, clothing, towel, gloves, helmet, etc.


  3. Find your nearest evacuation center.
  4. Participate ina community disaster drill or simulation.
  5. Assist vulnerable people in your community, if you are able.



What is a volcanic eruption?

An eruption is caused by rising magma from a storage reservoir to the surface due to gas or movement of Earth’s (tectonic) plates, An eruption can result in ash and stones spewing from a volcano as well asa lava flood, which can have a radius up to one thousand miles.

What are the effects of an eruption?

  • Heat clouds with temperatures between 300°C to 700°C that move faster than 70 km/hours.
  • Volcanic materials consisting of heat stones that can exceed 200°C.
  • Ash rainconsisting of acid, which is dangerous to your respiratory system and vision, and can destroy ground water and plants.
  • Lava, which is a thick fluid with temperatures between 700°C and 1200°C.
  • Poisonous gasesescaping through a cavity or crater.
  • Tsunami, if the volcano is under the sea.

The Volcanology and Geology Disaster Mitigation Center divides the status of a volcano into:
Warning: An eruption could happen within 24 hours
Watch: An eruption could happen within two weeks
Advisory: Volcanic and tectonic activities are increasing
Normal: No volcanic activity

What can you do?
Before an eruption

  • Identify areas prone to eruption.
  • Establish anevacuation place.
  • Establish an evacuation route..
  • Prepare an emergency kit that can sustain three days of living.
  • Participate in emergency evacuation training to receive information about your region’s mitigation measures and emergency plans.
  • Be aware of signs of an eruption:Lahar and flash floods; avalanche and hailstones; earthquake; volcanic ash rain and acid rain; and a tsunami.

During an eruption

  • Evacuate as soon as possible following the instructionsof your local authorities.
  • Avoid going in the same direction as the wind and avoid rivers that have headwaters near to the erupted volcano.
  • Stay away from the dangerous places noted in the hazard map.
  • If the water level has increased, stay away from the river and go to higher ground, a lahar may be near.
  • If trapped inside a house, close all the windows, doors, and holes.Place machines inside a garage or a similar place, and bring pets and livestock into covered areas.
  • If you are in an open space, look for shelter.
  • Assume the self-guarded position (bow to protect you and cover your head), if there are hailstones.
  • Beware of a lahar from the river.
  • Do not wear contact lens and cover your face when there isash rain.

After an eruption

  • Stay away from volcanic ash.
  • Do not return home until your local authorities give permission.
  • When outside, cover your mouth and nose as ash may irritate the respiratory system.
  • Wear goggles to protect your eyes and clothing to protect your skin.
  • Clean the volcanic ash from your roof using the proper safety precautions.
  • Avoid driving in volcanic ash as it may break your vehicle.
  • If you have a respiratory illness, avoid touching ash.
  • Assist your neighbors, especially those who are most vulnerable.

When evacuating, be aware of

  • Contagious diseases.
  • Food poisoning.
  • Malnutrition.
  • Posttraumatic stress.

Practice healthy behaviors

  1. Always defecate in latrines.
  2. Wash hands before eating.
  3. Drink boiled water.

Health issues caused by an eruption

  1. Injury or death from heat clouds or lava.
  2. Respiratory illness or eye pain due to irritation from volcanic ash.
  3. Gas poisoning.
  4. Evacuation.





What is an earthquake?

An earthquake (Lindu = Javanese, Lini = Sundanese, Goyang Tanah = Sulawesi) is shaking of the ground due to the sudden breaking and movement of large sections (tectonic plates) of the Earth's rocky outermost crust.

Types of earthquakes

  • A volcanic earthquake is ground shaking caused by volcanic activity.
  • A tectonic earthquake is strong ground shaking caused by the movement of tectonic plates.

What are the effects of an earthquake?
An earthquake can destroy buildings, houses, bridges, roads, etc. Additionally, earthquakes may be followed by aftershocks, tsunamis, landslides, wildfires, etc.

Intensity of an earthquake Magnitude
M7: Many building collapse and fissures occur.

M6: It is impossible to stand and walk. Weak buildings collapse.

M5: It is difficult to walk, Non-secured furniture topples. Some windows break, plates and books fall from shelves.

M4: Hanging pictures shake.

What can you do?

Before an earthquake:

  • Build earthquake resistant houses.
  • Place heavy objects on the floor.
  • Hang paintings or big mirrors away from beds, sofas, or chairs.
  • Devise a neighborhood evacuation place (shelter).
  • Establish evacuation routes to the shelter.
  • Participate in emergency evacuation training.
  • Prepare an emergency kit that consists of three days of supplies and emergency items, including medicine, non-perishable food, extra clothes, flashlight, etc..

Duringan earthquake

  • Remain calm and assume the self-guard position (bow to protect your chest, cross your hand above your head and nape, and always be ready to stand quickly).
  • When the shaking stops, exit the room.
  • If inside a house, hide below a strong chair or table. Stay away from closed doors, windows, glass, big mirrors, shelves, cupboards, and hangingobjects that may fall. Be careful of shards of glass when you exiting a room.
  • If in a multi-story building,use emergency stairs instead of elevators. Stay on the floor where you are. Wait until the shaking stops and exit the building using the stairs in a calm and orderly fashion.
  • If at night,hide below a strong chair or table. Wait until the shaking ends and calmly go outside.
  • If in a crowd,remain calm and ask others to do the same. When the situation is stable, try to go outside,staying away from buildings and trees. Be aware of aftershocks.
  • If outdoors,look for an open space.
  • If driving, stop and exit the vehicle. Lay down next to the vehicle. Do not stop the vehicle next to buildings, trees, electrical poles, bridges, flyovers, or tunnels.
  • If on highland,if you are next to a cliff, be careful of a landslide.
  • If on a beach,seek higher ground as soon as possible.
  • Always listen to disaster information.

After an earthquake

  • Remain calm.
  • Verify that you and your family are safe.
  • Assist those in need, especially the elderly,children, expectant mother, and the disabled.
  • If you are trapped inside a building, try to attract the attention of others.
  • If you see smoke, be aware that the fire may be bigger than you expect.
  • Shut gas valves and turn off water pumps.
  • Shut off electricity at the breaker box.
  • Be awareof falling objects when opening yourcupboards.
  • Protect yourself while cleaning up by wearing long sleeves, pants, and gloves.
  • Beware of aftershocks and the possibility of collapsed buildings.
  • Do not re-enter your house without permission from your local authorities.

If you have to evacuate, beware of

  • Contagious disease.
  • Food poisoning.
  • Malnutrition.
  • Posttraumatic stress.

Practice healthy behaviors

  • Always defecate in latrines.
  • Wash hands before eating.
  • Drink boiled water.

Health issues caused by an earthquake

  • Injury or death.
  • Fractures and wounds.
  • Posttraumatic stress.
  • Evacuation.




What is a tsunami?

The term tsunami comes from Japanese words of “Tsu” means “harbor” and “Nami” means “waves”. Tsunamis as tidal waves, are triggered by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, undersea lansslides, or collapsing icebergs. The devastating effects of a tsunami are well known.

Early signs ofa tsunami

  • Tremors caused by an earthquake.
  • Water withdrawing from a beach.
  • Strange “voices” or rumbling coming from the sea.
  • Cold, salty-smelling wind blowing from the sea.
  • Thick black high waves on the middle of the sea from the beach.
  • Immediately followsan earthquake.

Causes of a tsunami

  • Not all earthquakes are able to trigger a tsunami.
  • Earthquakes are able to trigger a tsunami if:
    • The tectonic plates crack vertically andare raised upward on the sea floor.
    • Ritcher magnitude scale above 6.0.
    • The epicenter less than 40 km.
  • An underwater eruption disturbs the stability of ocean waves.
  • An avalanche of an underwater volcano causes high waves.
  • High-intensity erosion around a beach or seabed disturbs the stability of the water surface.
  • An increasing volume of sediment enters the sea, causing vertical movement may make a small tsunami occurs.

How a tsunami forms

  • An earthquake creates holesand cracks on the seabed.
  • Seawater fills these cracks, causing water to withdraw from the beach.
  • The hole is filled with seawater, causinga water burst in all directions, including the beach, which induces a tsunami.

What can you do?
Before a tsunami

  • If you live in a coastal area, be prepared.
  • Establish an evacuation place to gather with family.
  • Establish an evacuation route.
  • Prepare an emergency kit with three days of supplies.
  • Participate in emergency evacuation training.
  • Always be aware of emergency siren/signs, especially after an earthquake.

During a tsunami

  • Follow the instructions of your local authorities.
  • If you are inside the house, remain calm and persuade your family member to go to higher ground.
  • If you are on the beach, go to higher ground, stay away from rivers, and evacuate immediately. Do not wait for instructions.
  • In a tsunami prone area, usually there are evacuation shelters.
  • Follow the evacuation routes.
  • Stay away from bridges.
  • It is better to evacuate on foot.
  • If evacuating by vehicle and there is a traffic jam, turn off your vehicle, lock it, and leave it behind.
  • When you have reached higher ground, stay in place as the second or third wave may be higher than the first.
  • Do not return home until instructed by your local authorities.

After a tsunami

  • Return home after instructed by your local authorities.
  • Clean up your house and surroundings.
  • Clean up mosquito or other insect nests.
  • Purify water before using.

If you have to evacuate, beware of:

  • Contagious disease.
  • Food poisoning.
  • Malnutrition.
  • Posttraumatic stress.

Practice healthy behaviors

  • Always defecate in latrines.
  • Wash hands before eating.
  • Drink boiled water.

Health issues caused by a tsunami

  • Injury or death by being swept away.
  • Injury or death due debris.
  • Fractures and wounds.
  • Posttraumatic stress.

Things to remember

  • Avoid living in coastal areas.
  • Be aware of pets and livestock behaviors. They usually show anxiety before a tsunami makes land.


Visitors &Tourist


A stranded commuter is one who cannot return home after a disaster due to traffic congestion or an interruption of public transportation.

What to do if you become a stranded commuter?

  • Do not move excessively, verify your location, and ensure your own safety.
  • When you go on a business trip, carry water.
  • If public transport is stopped, look for free shelter or public accommodations.



What is a flood?

A flood occurs when an area that usually not covered with water at a certain time is immersed in water.


Cause of floods

Due to nature:

  • Heavy rainfall where the volume cannot be contained by a river, lake, swan, or absorbed into the ground.
  • Ground levelis lowerthansea level.
  • Tides.
  • Storm surgefroma tropical storm.

Indirectly due to human activities:

  • Houses on riverbanks.
  • Development of neighborhoods unsuited to the land.
  • Deforestation.
  • Improper disposal of garbage (e.g., dumping in rivers or drainage systems).

Types of floods

  • River floods, which are typically seasonal.
  • Coastal floods, which are caused by tides.
  • Flash floods, which appear suddenly due to rapidly rising river levels from heavy rain and occur in or below hillsides.

What can you do?

Before a flood :

  • Work with neighbors to clean conduit.
  • Developa monitoringandearly warningsystemon parts of the river that frequently flood.
  • Installpumpsin areas below sea level.
  • Create reforestation programsinupstream areas.
  • Properly dispose of garbage.
  • Store important documents and other valuable items where they cannot reached by floodwaters.
  • Store drinking water in a storage tub.

During a flood:

  • Turn off the electricity at the breaker.
  • Calmly evacuate with your family to a predetermined location as soon as possible.
  • Avoidwalking neardrains.
  • Use clean water wisely.

After a flood:

  • Clean your house and surroundings. Use antiseptic to kill bacteria and germs.
  • Clean mosquito and other insect breeding habitats.
  • Repair your toilets and sewer system.
  • To avoid illnesses (e.g., diarrhea), purify water (e.g., by boiling).

If you need to evacuate, be aware of:

  • Communicable diseases, such as ISPA, diarrhea, and measles.
  • Food poisoning.
  • Malnutrition.
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder.

Healthproblems caused by flooding

  • Death, usually by drowning or electric shock.
  • ISPA.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Skin diseases.
  • Leptospirosis (a disease caused by bacteria in the urine of mice).
  • Measles.
  • Animal bites (snake, mouse, etc.).
  • Accidents (electric shock, drowning, swept away by the current).
  • Evacuation.

Practice healthy behaviors

  1. Always defecate in latrines.
  2. Wash hands before eating.
  3. Drink boiled water.

How to minimize health risks fromflooding

  • Do not use contaminated water for drinking, bathing, and washing.
  • Wash the hands with soap after using the toilet, before cooking, and before eating.
  • Boil water before drinking.
  • Wear boots if you must walk in puddles of water.
  • Disinfect surfaces.


Bird Flu


Enact the following steps to avoid spreading the bird flu and swine flu.

Bird Flu

Avian influenza (AI) is an infectious viral disease of birds (especially wild water fowl such as ducks and geese), which often has no apparent signs of illness. AI viruses can sometimes spread to domestic poultry, causing large-scale outbreaks. Additionally, some AI viruses have been reported to cross the species barrier and cause disease or subclinical infections in humans and other mammals.


What can youdo?

  • Do not touch sick or dead birds. If you do, wash hands with soap as soon as possible and report the incident to the headman.
  • Wash your hands and cookware with soapbefore cooking or eating.
  • Thoroughly cook chicken and eggs.
  • Keep birds and people separate. Keep new birds away from older ones for two weeks.
  • Go to the Puskesmas (health center) if you get the flu ora fever after being near a bird. (First you can call to the Health center of Hospital what to do?)
  • For high-risk persons (poultry cutters/sellers/buyers, poultry keepers, laboratory workers/medical personal who handle bird flu patients, farm workers, etc.), always wear protective clothing, including a mask, lab coat, gloves, and goggles while working.
  • When finished working, remove protective clothing and then wash your hands with soap/disinfectant and water.
  • Wash your hand with soap and water every time you come into contact with poultry.

Swine Flu

The influenza virus A H1N1 or swine flu is transmitted by direct human-to-human contact with a patient by coughing, sneezing, etc. Nowadays, the symptoms are light, and most patients make a full recovery.

What can you do?

  • Wash hands often in flowing water with soap and dry well with a tissue or clean towel.
  • Practice ethicalcoughing and sneezing.
  • If you are experiencing influenza symptoms, wear a mask, stay away from others, and contact your doctor.Stay home.
  • When you go abroad, be careful.


Waterspout (Small Tornado)


What is a Waterspout?

A waterspout is a local whirling wind with a 120 km/hour speed that lasts about 1–5 minutes. It is strong enough to lift houses and other items in its path, devastating settlements. In some places in Indonesia, a waterspout or small tornado is also called Puting Beliung, Angin Puyuh,or Angin Lesus.


Signs of a waterspout

Typical signs that a waterspout is imminent:

  • Dark, big, and tall cloud (sometimes whirl).
  • Lightning and thunder visible from a distance, and often accompanied by heavy rain or hail.
  • Hear a loud roar.

What can you do?

When there is a waterspout, stay inside unless your local authorities recommend evacuating.

If you are inside:

  • Stay in the safest room.
  • Close and lock all doors and windows. Stay away from the windows.
  • Turn off the electricity, electronic devices, and gas.
  • Stay away from items that can conduct electrical current.
  • Follow the instructions of your local authorities.

If you are outside:


  • Go inside as soon as possible.
  • If there is a flash of lightning, immediately assume a squatting position, hugging your chest to your knees.
  • Do not lie down on the ground.
  • Avoid open spaces(e.g., a field etc.).
  • Stay away from tall items (e.g., trees, electric poles, telephone poles, billboard, etc.).
  • Stay away from waterways, rivers, swamps, or lakes.

If inside a car:

  • Stop the car.Find a safe place away from trees, electric poles, telephone poles, or other objects that may easily fall.
  • Stay in the car and turn your hazard lamp on.
  • Do not stop or drive on a road that may be flooded.

After a waterspout

  • Make sure you and your family members are safe.
  • Provide first aid, if needed.
  • Report any electricity, gas, or similar types of issues to your local authorities.

Healthproblems due to a waterspout

  • Death, usually due to falling debris or lightning strikes.
  • Injured victims.


Land-related Disasters


If you live near mountainsor hills

  • Locate the nearest shelters.
  • Check the landslide risk on a daily basis.
  • Landslides occur during heavy rain. If the total rainfall exceeds 100 mm or more than 20 mm falls per hour, be aware of a possible landslide.
  • Familiarize yourself with precursory phenomena that may precede a landslide.


There are three types of land-related disasters:cliff slides, landslides, and rock falls.

  • Cliff slides flow with soil, stones, and sand from a collapsed slope of a mountain down to a valley due to heavy rain in the rainy season. Be aware of precursory phenomena, such as a reduced river flow due to an obstruction in a mountain even when it is raining.


  • Landslides start slowly. A slip surface, such as a clay layer in the ground, is formed under a relatively gentle slope, but an unstable soil mass is created due to the influence of heavy rain over-saturating the ground.


* The following phenomena must be considered:

1. Step and cracks in roads and hillsides.

2. Water suddenly gushes where there is not a spring.

3. Changes in rumbling, trees, and tilts.

4. Changes in the turbidity of well water; the water level in a swamp or pond suddenly changes.

  • Rock fall occurs when an earthquake or heavy rain soaks into the ground of a severe slope, weakening the resistance of soil.

* Spring water is generated in the slope. Pebbles fall, and cracks occur as the slope bulges.

What is a landslide?

A landslide is the falling of rocks, soil materials, or mixture of both that head to the bottom of a slope.

Beware of a landslide in areas where:

  • Houses built into steep slopes, on soft ground, and closeto a river bank.
  • Houses built near a creek with a mountain above.
  • Conversion of hilly land to residential areas.
  • Excavation aroundslopesprone to landslides.
  • Heavy rain.

Signs of landslide:

  • A long crack in the slope.
  • Bluster or ground shaking.
  • Protuberant slope.
  • Tilting of trees, poles, and houses.
  • Suddenwaterseepageon the slope.

What can you do?

Before a landslide:

  • Watch for greening fields with perennials (wooden trees, bamboo, etc.).
  • Implement a terracing system in the hill.
  • Do not cut trees haphazardly.
  • Close crackson the top of a cliffwitha watertightmaterial(clay) topreventrainwater from entering the ground.

If a landslide occurs:

  • Remain calm.
  • Find a safe place.
  • Avoid an avalanche’s path.

If you are stuck in a building:

  • Stay inside.
  • Take cover under a table or similarweight-bearing place.

If you are outside:

  • Avoidpotentialavalanchepaths.
  • Seek higher ground not in the avalanche’s path.

After a landslide:

  • Return home once your local authorities say it is safe.
  • If you are trapped, try to attract the attention of the rescue team by making noise.
  • If rescuing a buried victim, proceed with caution because excavation of the pile can trigger new landslides.
  • Close the disaster site. (Avoid crowds.)

If you need to evacuate, be aware of

  • Communicable diseases, such as ISPA, diarrhea, measles.
  • Food poisoning.
  • Malnutrition.
  • Posttraumatic stress disorder.

Practice healthy behaviors

  • Always defecate in latrines.
  • Wash hands before eating.
  • Drink boiled water.

Related healthproblems due to an avalanche

  • Death,usually due to falling debris.
  • Injury, usually fractures.
  • Evacuation.




What to do, when you hear lightning?

  • Assume a low position. It is important to seek shelter inside a building, home, or car.
  • Stay away from chimneys and tall trees.
  • If you are in a building, car, bus, train of reinforced concrete, electricity and an even lightning strikecan safely exit to the ground through the outer walls.
  • Although the risk of electric shock is lower in a wooden building, it is better to stay more than one meter away from walls and electrical appliances.


Food poisoning


What causes food poisoning?

  • Food poisoning is either due to bacteria or viruses, which are invisible to the eye.
  • Bacteria can cause food poisoning when the temperature and humidity are right.
  • Viruses only multiply once they enter a body through food and grow in the intestinal tract, causing food poisoning.
  • Food poisoning not only occurs when eating out, but also at home. Often symptoms of food poisoning are mild and misdiagnosed.
  • Food poisoning can occur even in a clean kitchen if cross-contamination occurs. Bacteria and viruses may grow in places such as vegetable compartments, dishcloths, sponges, sinks, cutting boards, etc..
  • Remember that bacteria and viruses may be present on food you have purchased.
  • You can transfer bacteria and viruses on your hands to your food. Wash your hands often to prevent contamination.


Food poisoning is caused by viruses or bacteria attached to food that enter the body. To prevent food poisoning, it is important not to increase the number of bacteria. Follow these simple rules.

Wash your hands often, especially

  • Before cooking.
  • Before and after handling raw meat, fish, oreggs.
  • While cooking.
  • After using the restroom.
  • After touching your face.
  • After changinga diaper.
  • After touching an animal.
  • Before sitting down at the table.
  • Before handling left-over food.

Store food at low temperatures.

The temperature that food is stored is important.

  • Most bacteria grow more rapidly in warm and humid environments.
  • Growth is suppressedat 10 °C, and is inhibited at−15 °C.
  • Store food in the refrigerator as soon as possible.
  • Remember that the refrigerator only slows bacteria growth, and food should be eaten as soon as possible.
  • Cook (or heat) your food.
  • Cooking (heating) food kills bacteria and viruses.
  • Meat and fish must be fully cooked.
  • Vegetables can also be cooked.
  • Meat dishes must be heated so that the center portion reaches at least 75 °C.

Maintain a sanitary workspace.

Bacteria and viruses are found on most surfaces (e.g., hands, cookware, cutting boards,knives, dishcloths, etc.).

  • Wash your utensils, food preparation tools, and spaces (e.g., cutting boards, knives, countertops, bowls, etc.) often, especially after contact with raw meat or fish.
  • Prevent the spread of bacteria and viruses by properly washing your hands.
  • Merely rinsing your hands with water is insufficient.
  • You must wash under your nails and in between fingers using soap.
  • How to wash your hands correctly.


Six measures to prevent food poisoning.

To prevent food poisoning in your home, follow these simple measures: "shopping", "store at home", "food preparation", "cooking", "meals", and "left-over food".


  • Check the expiration dates.
  • Add frozen and fresh food (e.g., meat and fish) to your cart last.
  • Use plastic bags to separate food to avoid cross-contamination.

Home storage

  • Place refrigerated or frozen items in your refrigerator or freezer as soon as possible.
  • Storefish, meat, and gravy in their own containers. Do NOT store with other food.
  • Always wash your hands before and after handling meat, fish, or eggs.
  • Set the temperature of your refrigerator to below 10 °C and your freezer to below −15 °C.
  • Do not over pack your refrigerator or freezer as it may inhibit the proper airflow.

Food preparation

  • Thoroughly wash your hands with soap before handling food.
  • Wash fruits and vegetables in running water.
  • Avoid the juice from raw meat and fish from contaminating other food, especially items that will not be cooked (e.g., salad or fruit).
  • Alwayswash your hands after touching raw meat, fish, or eggs.
  • Wash cutting boards and knives in hot soapy water after cutting raw meat or fish.
  • Use a separate cutting board and knife for meat and fish (e.g., one for vegetables and one for meats).
  • Thoroughly wash cut vegetables.
  • Thaw frozen foods in the refrigerator or microwave. Never allow meat to thaw on the counter.
  • Only thaw as much frozen food as you plan to use. Avoid repeating thawing and re-freezing.
  • Wash your dishcloths in hot (or boiling) water to clean.
  • Disinfect your cookware by washing and rinsing with boiling water.
  • Use one set of utensils to handle raw meat and a clean set to handle cooked meat.


  • Always wash your hands before cooking.
  • Thoroughly cook meat and fish. The temperature of the center portion must be heated to at least 75 °C.


  • Always wash your hands with soap before eating.
  • Use clean dishes.
  • Eat food soon after preparing. Do not allow food to stand at room temperature.
  • When it is cold outside, prepare warm meals and vice versa.


Left-over food

  • Wash your hands before handling left-over food.
  • Store left-overs in a clean container.
  • Use a separate container for each item to avoid cross-contamination.
  • Consume or discard left-overs within three days.
  • If a food looks even slightly suspicious, discard.
  • Thoroughly reheat left-over food before eating.

If you think you may have food poisoning.

Symptoms of diarrhea and vomiting are the body’s protective response trying to eliminate the causative agent. Avoid self-medicating and consult a doctor as soon as possible.

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